In a nutshell, a wash sale occurs when you sell a security (stock, bond, or mutual fund, for example) at a loss, either followed by or preceded by a purchase of substantially the same security within 30 days of the sale.
The IRS disallows the recognition of the loss for tax purposes in such cases. Without the purchase portion of the set of transactions, you would be allowed to utilize the capital loss to offset other capital losses and possibly offset ordinary income, depending upon the circumstances.
When you sell, at a loss, a security of any sort that would be treated as a capital item, the loss will be disallowed for tax purposes if you purchased substantially the same security within 30 days before or after the sale:
In a taxable account or a deferred account (all accounts under your household are counted together, that is, yours, your spouse’s, and any corporation you control) or as options or futures contracts.
Of course, the initial sale of the security must be within a taxable account – that is, not within an IRA or other deferred-tax account. This is because we’re referring to capital gains treatment of gains and losses, which do not apply to IRAs and deferred-tax accounts.
Prior to Revenue Ruling 2008-5, one could effectively purchase a new, substantially same position in your IRA or Roth IRA within the 30 day period after the loss sale in your taxable account, and it would not engage the wash rule. This has been disallowed now.
So what makes up a substantially identical security?
In the IRS’ own words:
In determining whether stock or securities are substantially identical, you must consider all the facts and circumstances in your particular case. Ordinarily, stocks or securities of one corporation are not considered substantially identical to stocks or securities of another corporation.
However, they may be substantially identical in some cases. For example, in a reorganization, the stocks and securities of the predecessor and successor corporations may be substantially identical.
Similarly, bonds or preferred stock of a corporation are not ordinarily considered substantially identical to the common stock of the same corporation.
However, where the bonds or preferred stock are convertible into common stock of the same corporation, the relative values, price changes, and other circumstances may make these bonds or preferred stock and the common stock substantially identical. For example, preferred stock is substantially identical to the common stock if the preferred stock:
- Is convertible into common stock,
- Has the same voting rights as the common stock,
- Is subject to the same dividend restrictions,
- Trades at prices that do not vary significantly from the conversion ratio, and
- Is unrestricted as to convertibility.
The above is quoted directly from IRS Publication 550.
The question comes up all the time – I always say as a rule of thumb that if you have to question whether your choice of a replacement is substantially identical or not, then it’s not worth it to have to argue the point with the IRS when you’re audited. It’s only 30 days, after all.
Examples of Wash Sale Avoidance
Below are a few examples to help understand the idea of substantially identical, and how to avoid it in practice.